Evomorf@UGent

Collection by Dominique Adriaens • Last updated 5 weeks ago

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Research group Evolutionary Morphology of Vertebrates at Ghent University

Dominique Adriaens
3D model of gill arches and gill arrangement in fish (showing the dorsal aorta and the heart)

Fish gills

3D model of gill arches and gill arrangement in fish (showing the dorsal aorta and the heart)

Human pituitary and hypothalamic nuclei

Human brain, hypothalamic nuclei and pituitary

Mammalian skull, showing the reduced mandibular arch elements: mandibular arch (green - including two middle ear ossicles), hyoid arch (red - including stapes and ossicles connecting to hyoid and larynx), branchial arches (orange - including laryngeal cartilages)

Vertebrate skull evolution: 5-Mammals

Mammalian skull, showing the reduced mandibular arch elements: mandibular arch (green - including two middle ear ossicles), hyoid arch (red - including stapes and ossicles connecting to hyoid and larynx), branchial arches (orange - including laryngeal cartilages)

Tetrapod skull anatomy, showing modified mandibular arch (green), hyoid arch (red - forming columella auris) and branchial arches (orange - also forming the laryngeal cartilages at the base of the trachea)

Vertebrate skull evolution: 4-Tetrapod

Tetrapod skull anatomy, showing modified mandibular arch (green), hyoid arch (red - forming columella auris) and branchial arches (orange - also forming the laryngeal cartilages at the base of the trachea)

Gnathostome skull anatomy, showing seven gill arches (premandibular arch not included here) surrounding the pharynx (green tube): green: modified mandibular arch, red: modified hyoid arch, orange: branchial arches

Vertebrate skull evolution: 3-Gnathostomes

Gnathostome skull anatomy, showing seven gill arches (premandibular arch not included here) surrounding the pharynx (green tube): green: modified mandibular arch, red: modified hyoid arch, orange: branchial arches

Ancestral gnathostome skull anatomy, showing seven gill arches (premandibular arch not included here) surrounding the pharynx (green tube). The mandibular arch (green) modified into jaws, whereas hyoid arch (red) yet unmodified.

Vertebrate skull evolution: 2-ancestral gnathostomes

Ancestral gnathostome skull anatomy, showing seven gill arches (premandibular arch not included here) surrounding the pharynx (green tube). The mandibular arch (green) modified into jaws, whereas hyoid arch (red) yet unmodified.

Hypothetical ancestral agnathan skull anatomy, showing seven gill arches (premandibular arch not included here) surrounding the pharynx (green tube).

Vertebrate skull evolution: 1-Agnathan / ancestral system

Hypothetical ancestral agnathan skull anatomy, showing seven gill arches (premandibular arch not included here) surrounding the pharynx (green tube).

Gill slits arise as the endoderm (green central tube) evaginates to connect to an ectodermal (outer brownish layer) invagination. In between two consecutive gill chambers, the branchial arches form: green: mandibular arch, red: hyoid arch, orange: branchial arches.

Branchial arch and gill slit formation in vertebrates

Gill slits arise as the endoderm (green central tube) evaginates to connect to an ectodermal (outer brownish layer) invagination. In between two consecutive gill chambers, the branchial arches form: green: mandibular arch, red: hyoid arch, orange: branchial arches.

Homunculus

Gill system, heart and main blood vessels in a fish (blue: heart and ventral aorta transporting oxygen poor blood, red: dorsal aorta transporting oxygen rich blood)

Gill system in fish

Gill system, heart and main blood vessels in a fish (blue: heart and ventral aorta transporting oxygen poor blood, red: dorsal aorta transporting oxygen rich blood)

Heart and main blood vessels leaving the heart in a fish, with indication of blood flow (blue: oxygen poor blood, red: oxygen rich blood)

Aortic system in Vertebrates: Mammals

Heart and main blood vessels leaving the heart in a fish, with indication of blood flow (blue: oxygen poor blood, red: oxygen rich blood)

Heart and main blood vessels leaving the heart in a fish, with indication of blood flow (blue: oxygen poor blood, magenta: blood getting oxygenated; red: oxygen rich blood)

Aortic system in Vertebrates: Crocodiles

Heart and main blood vessels leaving the heart in a fish, with indication of blood flow (blue: oxygen poor blood, magenta: blood getting oxygenated; red: oxygen rich blood)

Heart and main blood vessels leaving the heart in a fish, with indication of blood flow (blue: oxygen poor blood, magenta: mixed blood; red: oxygen rich blood)

Aortic system in Vertebrates: Amphibians

Heart and main blood vessels leaving the heart in a fish, with indication of blood flow (blue: oxygen poor blood, magenta: mixed blood; red: oxygen rich blood)

Heart and main blood vessels leaving the heart in a fish, with indication of blood flow (blue: oxygen poor blood, magenta: blood getting oxygenated; red: oxygen rich blood)

Aortic system in Vertebrates: Fish

Heart and main blood vessels leaving the heart in a fish, with indication of blood flow (blue: oxygen poor blood, magenta: blood getting oxygenated; red: oxygen rich blood)

Forces that an animal experiences during flying (red: gravity; green: forward thrust; orange: drag; magenta: lift)
Ghent UniversityAnimal ExperiencesOrangeGreen

Forces on a flying animal

Forces that an animal experiences during flying (red: gravity; green: forward thrust; orange: drag; magenta: lift)