Red Summer (1919) - On October 1, a race riot broke out in Elaine, Arkansas. Planters opposed the efforts of black sharecroppers to organize for better terms, and attacked them. In the riot they killed between 100 and 200 blacks. Arkansas Governor Brough's committee of prominent local white businessmen concluded that the Sharecroppers Union was "established for the purpose of banding negroes together for the killing of white people." The government convicted 79 blacks by all-white juries.