Spain - Cordoba Mezquita, a world heritage. Facts about Spain: Area: 504,783 sq km. The major part of the Iberian peninsula and Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean. Also included are the Canary Islands and the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla on the North African coast. Population: 45,450,497. Capital: Madrid. Official language: Catalán, Galician and Basque are official languages in the respective autonomous regions. Castilian (Spanish) is the official language. Languages: 21.