The SeaFET™ reports pH determined potentiometrically in two different ways. The ISFET potential is measured against a reference electrode bearing a liquid junction (internal reference) and against a solid state reference electrode
CoCoRo: printed mini-submarine robots for marine exploration. To perform the tasks in harmony, each CoCoRo bot is embedded with sensors that helps them navigate their surrounding and move in three-dimensions perceiving change in light and temperature.
The National Oceanography Centre, in collaboration with the University of Southampton, is developing a suite of micro-fluidic based chemical and physical sensors, flow cytometers and nucleic acid analysers.