Bicephalic eagle

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an old book with two birds on the pages and one bird flying in the air
Al-Qazwīnī's (1203) ʿAjāʾib al-makhlūqāt wa-gharāʾib al-mawjūdāt
A 2-headed phoenix (ʿanqāʾ) appearing in al-Qazwīnī's (1203) ʿAjāʾib al-makhlūqāt wa-gharāʾib al-mawjūdāt. It is unknown why al-Qazwīnī drew this bird double-headed, but it should be noted that he lived under the Mongol IlKhanate in Baghdād when he wrote it. To the native population, the Mongols weren't different from the previously migrating Turks (the Mongols were known as Tatār in Arabic, the Tatars actually being a Turkic ethnic group). Hence the association with the Turkic bicephalic eagle.
an intricately carved block on display in a museum
An 11th c. AD Byzantine church sculpture
An 11th c. AD Byzantine church sculpture carved in a marble slab featuring a crownless two-headed eagle and other birds. It was found in the church of Mayafarikin in Diyarbakir province. British Museum, London. Its appearance in a church is remarkable, since the double-headed eagle was a political symbol of Byzantine imperialism, monarchism and grandeur. It might signify the increased fusion between the Greek Orthodox Church and the Byzantine Empire after the Great Schism of 1054.
an old building with many windows and doors
The Church of St. George in Istanbul
The Church of St. George, the principal Eastern Orthodox cathedral still in use in Istanbul since 1600. Since then, it has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, one of the 14-16 jurisdictions that compose the Eastern Orthodox Church. The emblem above the entrance is a Byzantine imperial double-headed eagle.
some blue and green tiles are hanging on the wall
Tile of the Kubad Abad Palace
Ceramic tile depicting a two-headed eagle with shield currently at the Konya Karatay Ceramics Museum. Pieces like this were found during the excavation of the Kubad Abad Palace, built for sultan Kayqubad I (1220–1236), ruler of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum.
The Liwāʾ al-Salājiqa was Syrian Turkmen rebel group from the northern Aleppo Governorate. Their banner featured a double-headed eagle, popular among Turkmens due to their association with the historical Seljuq Turks and local beyliks. They joined Jaysh al-Thuwwār in 2015. Romans, Empire, Emperor, Two By Two, Red Background, 11th Century, Deities
The Liwāʾ al-Salājiqa
The Liwāʾ al-Salājiqa was Syrian Turkmen rebel group from the northern Aleppo Governorate. Their banner featured a double-headed eagle, popular among Turkmens due to their association with the historical Seljuq Turks and local beyliks. They joined Jaysh al-Thuwwār in 2015.
an old book with two men shaking hands
Alexios III of Trebizond and his wife Theodora
Alexios III of Trebizond (1338 - 1390) and his wife Theodora depicted in a decree (chrysobull) granted by him to the Dionysiou Monastery. She is wearing a long, red robe with embroidered golde double-headed eagles.
an ancient coin with arabic writing on the front and side, one is green in color
An Artuqid coin by Nāṣir al-Dīn Maḥmūd
The double-headed eagle heraldic symbol was used outside the Rum Sultanate as well. Nāṣir al-Dīn Maḥmūd, an Artuqid ruler (r. 1200 -1222) featured this on his coins. Notice that none of the Turkic eagles wears a crown. But contrary to popular belief, the two-headed eagle become popular among the Turks only after the end of the Seljuk Empire (1194), and was limited to the Seljuk dynasties of Rum and the neighboring beyliks.
an old brick building with carvings on the front and side walls, including two lions
Tower of the Diyarbakir Fortress
The double-headed eagle heraldic symbol was used outside the Rum Sultanate as well. It famously appears on the tower of the Diyarbakir Fortress, expanded and fortified by the Artuqid beyliks that ruled the area from the 11th - 15th c. Contrary to popular belief, the two-headed eagle become popular among the Turks only after the end of the Seljuk Empire (1194), and was limited to the Seljuk dynasties of Rum and the neighboring beyliks.
two pieces of art hanging on the wall with blue and green tiles in front of them
Tile of the Kubad Abad Palace
Ceramic tile depicting a two-headed eagle with shield currently at the Konya Karatay Ceramics Museum. Pieces like this were found during the excavation of the Kubad Abad Palace, built for sultan Kayqubad I (1220–1236), ruler of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum.
a stone carving with an angel on it's face and two hands in the center
A double-headed eagle relief in Konya
A 13th c. double-headed eagle relief found at Konya, capital of the Rum Seljuks from 1097 onward, (now in Ince Minare Museum). Notice the both Byzantine and Persian influences.
a stone plaque with an eagle on it's face and two smaller birds in the middle
A double-headed eagle relief in Konya
A 13th c. double-headed eagle relief found at Konya, capital of the Rum Seljuks from 1097 onward, (now in Ince Minare Museum). Notice the both Byzantine and Persian influences.
an old map with lines and symbols on it
Banner of the Empire of Trebizond
The Catalan Atlas (1375), an important Medieval atlas by Majorcan cartographer Abraham Cresques, shows the Empire of Trebizond as having a red banner with a gold double-headed eagle. At the time, it was ruled by Alexios III as a successor state of the Byzantine Empire.
a seal with an eagle on it
The seal of Demetrios Palaiologos
The seal of Demetrios Palaiologos (r.(1449–1460), Despot of the Morea (Mystras). This seal is described in a 1926 book by G. E. Tipaldos on the Byzantine coat of arms. The seal features the Palaiologos' double-headed eagle with a single crown.
an old book with three coats of arms on it
Coat of arms of the Byzantine despots Michael and Philip
Coat of arms of the Byzantine despots Michael and Philip, envoys of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II to the Council of Constance (1414-1418). A 1483 print of of Ulrich Richental's Armorial. Richental was a chronicler of the Council. Bavarian State Library - Munich.
an old painting with people dressed in medieval clothing and wearing gold, sitting on a chair
Byzantine Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos presiding over a synod
Byzantine Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos presiding over a synod. Constantinople, 1370-75 [Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris.] John served as a Grand Domestic and regent for the Palaiologoi, before reigning himself as Emperor. You can see the Byzantine imperial eagle.