In the 7th May 1904 issue of the French caricature magazine “L‘Assiette au Beurre”, the Czech artist Frantisek Kupka drew a caricature titled “Dieu Turc” (“Turkish God”). The black-faced Muslim warrior stands pugnaciously on a mountain of decapitated heads. In the sky, an allusion is made on the ḥūr al-ʿayn, the virgins of Paradise waiting for the Muslim martyr. The warrior's shield represents the Ottoman flag. The man symbolizes ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I, a reference to the Hamidian massacres…
Pre-Islamic Turkic moon god Ay Ata
The Zengid Atabegs of Mosul had their own intriguing representation of the crescent and star, a feature only attested on Mosul minted coins. The crescent and star were quite common among the Turkic dynasties of the time (12th-13th c.), but not in the form of a human figure. This anthropomorphic depiction of the moon is probably influenced by both Muslim astrology and Turkic mythology. The pre-Islamic Turkic moon god was known as Ay Ata (lit. "Moon Father"), hence the crown.
Ottomans and Knights Hospitallers during the Siege of Rhodes (1480)
A late 15th c. illuminated manuscript by Guillaume Caoursin depicts the Ottomans and Knights Hospitallers during the Siege of Rhodes (1480). There're 3 blue crescents on the banner and a single one on every tent. This is one of the earliest depictions of the Ottoman crescent.
Battle of Velestino
An 1897 Greek painting of the Battle of Velestino (1897). This was an important battle on the Thessalian front during the Greco-Ottoman war. The painter used realistic depictions of the Ottoman banners (red with white crescent/5-pointed star) and their coat of arms below.
Battle of Gallipoli
During the Dardanelles Campaign, also known as the Battle of Gallipoli (1915-1916), Ottoman airplanes dropped pamphlets on the Gallipoli Peninsula in Urdu, Arabic and English to decrease their opponent's morale. Those opponents were mostly Australians, Indians and New Zealanders.
Military costume of Turkey
An 1812 illustration from Thomas McLean's work "The military costume of Turkey" subsequently adopted as part of the early 20th century Vinkhuijzen Collection of Military Uniforms. Notice the crescents on the Ottoman banners, as brass pole tops and on the mosque's minarets.
A railway bridge on the 32th km of the Jaffa-Nablus Road, Palestine, 1903. You can see many Ottoman flags, both large and small, all featuring a crescent and five-pointed star.
Algerian Infantry Division
The 3rd Algerian Infantry Division was an infantry division of the Army of Africa comprising of three regiments. It was led by general Joseph de Monsabert and its military flag featured three crescents. In August 1944, they landed in the Provence and retook Marseille. Their pennant still hangs inside the Notre-Dame de la Garde basilica of Marseille to recognize the efforts of the Algerian infantry. The division was disbanded in 1946.
During the Balkan wars (1912-1913), the Ottomans embedded the so-called Fedais (Fidāʾīyūn) Volunteer Brigade, an infantry force of patriots and nationalists with a supportive, paramilitary role. The Fedais were usually employed by the Committee of Union and Progress, which would later give rise to the Young Turks. Below picture is a troop of Fedais in the Balkan brandishing a green flag with star and crescent.
While infantry banners in the 16th and 17th centuries followed the Turkish Muslim military tradition with local variations, maritime symbols conformed with international customs, both for ships and their commanders, and Turkish naval flags were described in foreign literature. This image appears in the "Atlas Novus", engraved by J. B. Homann and published in Nürnberg in 1712.
Banner of Tlemcen
The crescent found its way into Mamluk Egypt by the 14th c. From there, it spread across the Barbary Coast, where it became very popular. This portolan of Pietro Visconti (1325) shows the white banner with a red crescent of Tlemcen in present-day Algeria.
Invasion of Bosnia and Herzegovina led by Josip Filipović
An Ottoman-era banner used by the defenders during the invasion of Bosnia and Herzegovina led by Josip Filipović (Austria-Hungary). It features Chapter 6 Verse 13 of the Qur'an and a crescent with an 8-pointed star - Museum of Military History in Vienna.
Kingdom of Egypt
The national flag of the Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953) was green with a white crescent between who's "horns" were three white stars. In 1922, the UK recognized Egypt's independence on condition that Fu’ād I change his title of sultan to king.