Ottoman Empire - rubʿ ḥizb - 1815
An Ottoman coin from the Baghdad Eyalet coined in 1815 (1231 AH). Within the eight-pointed star there's a Turkic tamgha associated with the local ruler. The coin is a copper 5 Para, a subdivision of the Kuruş, the standard unit of currency in the Ottoman Empire until 1844.
Islamic Republic of Iran - rubʿ ḥizb - 2019
Qāsim Sulaymānī wearing the Order of Dhul-Faqār (Neshan-e Zolfaghar), the highest military honour of Iran. Established in 1856, the order was abolished by the Islamic Republic in 1979, but was re-introduced in 2019, when Sulaymānī officially received it.
Turkmenistan - rubʿ ḥizb - 2003
The official emblem of the state of Turkmenistan, adopted in 2003 by Saparmurat Niyazov (r.1990-2006). It features a steppe horse and the same tapestry pattern seen on the state's flag. On top, a crescent and five stars.
Al-Andalus - rubʿ ḥizb - 13th c.
The rubʿ ḥizb became incorporated into the large corpus of Islamicate figures and patterns, appearing most notably on flags and in decorative architecture. One of the earliest examples of flags is this early-13th century Almohad banner captured by the Castilian army during battle. It is at display at the Patrimonio Nacional Museo de Telas Medievales in Burgos and is made of silk and gilded parchment, preserved in an excellent condition.
Afghanistan - rubʿ ḥizb - 1918
Afghanistan's Ḥabībullāh Khān (r. 1901-1919) and his Barakzai successors until Nāder Shāh based their national emblem directly on the Ottoman imperial standard. Compare it with this 1 rupee coin dated 1337/1918, the last year of Ḥabībullāh's rule.
Ottoman Empire - rubʿ ḥizb - 18th-19th c.
Historically, each quarter of a ḥizb was marked with a specific sign or inscription, in some cases the octangular figure (or a variation) known as a rubʿ ḥizb. Have a look at this late-Ottoman manuscript of the first Quranic chapter al-Fātiḥa written by Turkish calligrapher Efendi Mehmet Abdülaziz (1871-1934). Here, the stylized rubʿ ḥizb marks the start of the first quarter, right after the opening sentence.
Jerusalem - rubʿ ḥizb - 2009
Jerusalem was elected for the year of 2009 the Capital of Arab Culture, a project by UNESCO and the Arab League to promote Arab heritage and culture. The logo for the event is a colorful rubʿ ḥizb encircling an image of Jerusalem. Note the barbed wire hanging over it.
Afghanistan - rubʿ ḥizb - 1929
The rubʿ ḥizb emblem was used well-into 1929, when several different transitional flags appeared in anticipation of Nāder Shāh’s 1930 Kingdom of Afghanistan. This example can be seen in the Firing Line Museum in Cardiff Castle, taken home by the King's Dragoon Guards.
Ottoman Empire - rubʿ ḥizb - 1896
The Ottoman sultan's standard, a stylized and rayed rubʿ ḥizb. Below's 1896 litograph by Frederick Dangerfield shows the sultan's imperial standard (with tughra) and the sultan's naval standard (with star and crescent).
Spain - rubʿ ḥizb - 2012
Ateneo Cultural Andaluz Arbonaida was founded in 2012 as cultural association to promote the local culture and traditions, transmit Andalusian history and to popularize the figure of Blas Infante (1885-1936), a Spanish politician known as the "father of Andalusian nationalism".
Spain - rubʿ ḥizb - 2016
The Partido Nacionalista Andaluz - Somos Andaluces is a Andalusian nationalist-regionalist party established in 2016 to renew the Andalusian pursue of autonomy after the disbanding of the Andalusian Party. Its flag is a blue rubʿ ḥizb on the foreground of the Andalusian colors.
Syria - rubʿ ḥizb - 2015
The Selahaddin El-Kurdi Hareketi is a Syrian opposition militant group of Kurdish fighters formed in 2015. The group operates primarily in Syria's north western forests and mountains. Their logo contains a rubʿ ḥizb in colors associated with the Kurds (green, red and white).
Persia - rubʿ ḥizb - undated
The rubʿ ḥizb is actually very common in traditional Muslim Persian architecture, most notably in the design of the howz (from Arabic ḥawḍ), a centrally positioned symmetrical courtyard pool like this one in a mosque in Teheran.