Trepanation, or trepanning, is a procedure where sharp instruments were used to bore holes through the skull. It is the oldest surgery know to man. It was practiced as early as 10,000 B.C. & was commonly used to treat head-related illnesses both mental & physical. Trepanning was performed without anesthesia, so that the patient was awake during the procedure. Trepanning was practised well into the 18th century.