The Battle of Teutoburg Forest (9 AD) resulted in disastrous defeat for the Romans. Three entire legions were ambushed and destroyed by mostly unarmored warriors with clubs and spears. 15,000–20,000 legionnaires died, and many officers honorably took their own lives by falling on their swords. Survivors were sacrificed to pagan gods, cooked in pots, and their bones used for rituals. Common soldiers were enslaved. Afterward, Rome would never again attempt expansion east of the Rhine.