The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement was an anti-imperialist uprising which took place in China towards the end of the Qing dynasty between…
The Eight-Nation Alliance invation was an international coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion by the nations of Japan, Russia, the British Empire, France, the United States, Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary. The coalition of military forces initially dispatched ostensibly to act as bodyguards for merchants of their Nations (and other persons, largely confined to the "foreign settlements", so-called "treaty ports" etc.) launched what has termed a "humanitarian intervention",
With the outbreak of the Boxer Rebellion, U.S. Secretary of State John Hay, who knew little of the Far East, turned to Rockhill for guidance. As such, Rockhill drafted a memorandum that spelled out the famous Open Door Policy towards China; this memorandum was circulated to Russia, Britain, Germany, France, Japan, and Italy and in March 1900, Secretary Hay announced that all the Great Powers had signed off on the Open Door Policy.
The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Rebellion at the hands of the Eight-Power Expeditionary Force. It is often regarded as one of the Unequal Treaties.
The chastened and contrite imperial court was forced to accept the heavy indemnity and other terms imposed by the powers in the Boxer protocol of Sep. 7, 1901. Fortunately for China, the country itself remained intact, the powers opting for the "open door" of trade rather than an imperialist division of its territory among them.