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Westward Exploration and Settlement of the United States c.1850 (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the patterns and routes of westward exploration and settlement in the United States after the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803. As Napoleonic dreams of a great North American Empire gave way to French hegemonic ambitions in Europe , the United States became a continental nation overnight. At the onset of the 19th century, as Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and the Corps of Discovery mad
The Roman Empire and the Crisis of the Third Century, c. 270 CE (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the state of affairs in the lands of the Roman Empire following the violent death of Emperor Severus Alexander in 235 CE during a period known as the Crisis of the Third Century , as multiple pretenders staked a claim to the imperial throne (in 50 years, fifty-one individuals received the title of the Roman Emperor predominantly through military coups and most of them never reached Rome ). The
Suleiman the Magnificent and the Ottoman Empire, c. 1566 (by Simeon Netchev) Suleiman the Magnificent (also given as Sleyman, Suleyman I, or Suleiman the Lawgiver) was the Ottoman Empire 's tenth sultan and the longest-reigning one (he was on the throne for 45 years - from 1520 until his death in 1566), overseeing a realm of more than 25 million people. A most formidable leader (even when compared to his notable royal contemporaries, Francis I of France, Henry VIII of England , and Charles V, H
The Columbian Exchange in the 15th century (by Simeon Netchev) An infographic illustrating the exchange of diseases, animals, plants, populations, and technology between the Americas, Africa , and Eurasia in the wake of Christopher Columbus ' 1492 voyage across the Atlantic, known as the "Columbian Exchange " (from Alfred W. Crosby's 1972 book with the same name.)
The Giza Pyramid Complex of Ancient Egypt, c. 2600-2500 BCE (by Simeon Netchev) An illustration of the layout and relationships of various architectural and geographical elements on the Giza plateau in the region of Memphis (around modern Cairo) during the Old Kingdom of Egypt ("The Age of the Pyramids "). The image also compares various ancient tombs and temples built as pyramids.
The Great Pyramid (Pyramid of Khufu) c. 2560 BCE (by Simeon Netchev) An illustration depicting the structural elements and composition of the Great Pyramid of Giza , the tomb of King Khufu (called "Cheops" by the Greeks), the largest of the pyramids of the Giza necropolis and the only member of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.
Prehistoric Monument Stonehenge, c. 3000 - 1600 BCE (by Simeon Netchev) An infographic depicting the 5,000-year-old megalithic monument Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England . The findings of a long archaeological investigation of the site that dates back to the 1660s and the antiquarian John Aubrey are presented in their abundance and complexity, as are some hypotheses about the monument's evolution and function.
The Journey of Aeneas from Troy to Rome (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the epic journey of Aeneas , a Trojan hero (according to Virgil 's poem The Aeneid ) who, destined to found Rome , flees Troy after its fall and, much like Odysseus , spends years wandering the Mediterranean . He encounters the Cyclopes, loses his father, falls in love with Dido , Queen of Carthage , betrays her (and, if the legend is to be believed - sows the seeds of the Punic Wars of the future), descends into the
The Twelve Labours of Herakles (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the Twelve Labours of Herakles (Heracles, romanized as Hercules ), probably the most famous of the ancient heroes in Greek mythology . Born as a demi-god (son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene,) Herakles was tricked out of his kingdom and constantly pursued by Hera , which culminated in a fit of madness that drove him to murder his wife and children. As a penance, he was urged by the Oracle of Delphi to enter into service of Eur
Siege of Toulon 1793 (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the decisive final stage of the Siege of Toulon, France. This military operation of the French Revolutionary Wars lasted from August 28 to December 19, 1793, and propelled the reputation of the 24-year-old artillery captain Napoleon Bonaparte. Despite the overwhelming superiority of the invading Republican armies, the siege of the southern French coastal city of Toulon and its forts lasted nearly four months due mainly to the incompete
Roman Hispania c. 125 CE (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the scope and organization of the Roman provinces in Hispania (present-day Spain and Portugal.) Roman Spain was one of the first provinces beyond Italy ; it took two centuries to conquer fully (starting with an invasion against the Carthaginians in 206 BCE) and remained under Roman rule far longer than most of the Western Empire (northeastern Spain was still under nominal Roman control c. 474 CE.) Hispania was among the wealthiest
Royal House of Hanover in Britain Family Tree (by Simeon Netchev) An image illustrating the family tree of the royal house of Hanover (officially known as the House of Brunswick-Lneburg, Hanover line) that ruled Britain for 187 years (1714 - 1901). The Hanoverians were originally a long shot as the first of their Britsh Kings, George Louis, elector of Hanover (aka George I of Great Britain ), was, in 1714, only 52nd in line to the throne (although the nearest Protestant candidate according to t
The Merovingian Dynasty, c. 639 (by Simeon Netchev) A map depicting the rise and expansion of the Merovingians, a powerful Frankish dynasty that, at the end of the 5th century, was the first to unify the fragmented tribes and petty kingdoms in the territory of present-day Germany, France, the Low Countries, Switzerland, and Austria after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire . Beginning with Clovis (a Salian Frank claiming descendency of a mythical hero named Merovech), the Merovingian-ruled
Bulgarian Empire under Khan Krum the Fearsome, 803-814 (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the reign of Krum the Fearsome (Bulgarian: ), a pagan khan of Bulgaria from about 800 until his death in 814. During his time on the throne, Krum embarked on an aggressive campaign of territorial expansion, resulting in medieval Bulgaria doubling in size and spreading from the Dnieper to Middle Danube and from the Tatra Mountains to Adrianople. Following Charlemagne 's defeat of the Avar Khaganate in 8
United States Expansion after the Treaty of Paris in 1783 (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the expansion of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris (September 3, 1783), which ended the War of the American Revolution, recognized U.S. independence, and granted it sizeable additional territory. Following the 828,000 square miles (about 2 million square kilometers) "Louisiana Purchase" from Napoleonic France in 1803, the United States doubled in size, and its Westward Expan
The Sassanid Empire c. 620 CE (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the rise and expansion of the Sassanid Empire (also known as Ernshahr, "the Domain of the Iranians/Aryans " or Neo-Persian Empire .) Named after the House of Sasan, it was the longest-lived Persian imperial dynasty, enduring from 224 CE until the Islamic conquests in the 7th century. The Sasanians believed themselves successors of the Achaemenids and rivals of the Greco-Roman civilization . The expansion of their power brought
First Bulgarian Empire under Simeon I the Great (893 - 927 CE) (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the First Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent during the reign of Simeon I the Great (the first one to use the title tsar derived from the Latin caesar ). The Bulgarian Empire was a medieval kingdom established as a union between the Bulgars and Slavs that adopted Christianity in 864. Simeon I's ambition to ascend to the imperial throne in Constantinople was the dominant driver of Bulgarian
Siege of Dunkirk and Battle of Hondschoote, August-September 1793 (by George Stanford) Map depicting the Siege of Dunkirk and Battle of Hondschoote, between an Anglo-Hanoverian force commanded by the Duke of York and Marshal Freytag, and an army of the French Republic led by Jean-Nicolas Houchard and Jean-Baptiste Jourdan. On 8 September, the French defeated the Coalition army, and the siege of Dunkirk was lifted. Map is a colored adaptation of an original by George Stanford, in British Campai
The Parthian Empire in the 2nd century (by Simeon Netchev) The Parthian Kingdom (also known as Arsacid, by the name of its ruling dynasty) rose to prominence c. 247 BCE in the vacuum created by the collapse of the Seleucid Empire . In the centuries that followed, the Parthian Empire grew to encompass most of Mesopotamia and the southeastern part of Central Asia. The Parthians became a major rival for Rome in its drive for control of Armenia and primacy in the East until 224 CE, when the murder
Roman Rule in North Africa (146 BCE - 395 CE) (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the scope and organization of the Roman provinces in North Africa . Since the establishment of the first Roman territory on the continent (roughly corresponding to modern Tunisia) in 146 BCE following the destruction of Carthage in the Third Punic War , Rome had expanded its rule into (what is today) the Maghreb, turning the North African provinces into one of the most productive and wealthy landscapes of the M
The New Kingdom of Egypt c. 1250 BCE (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the state of Egypt at its height during the New Kingdom (c. 1570 - c. 1069 BCE). Also known as the Egyptian Empire , this period began with the reunification of Egypt under Ahmose I (around 1550 BCE) and ended c. 1070 BCE with the gradual dissolution of the state and increased Libyan infiltration. Spanning more than 500 years and well beyond Egypt's core territory, the New Kingdom saw the most powerful (and famous today
Map of Famars and Raismes (by John Fortescue) Map showing the Battle of Famars, also showing the woodlands around the towns of Raismes and Vicoigne, where the Battle of Raismes was fought between Coalition and French forces on 8 May 1793. From John Fortescue's History of the British Army Volume IV - Maps and Plans , 1915.
Territorial Expansion of the Roman Republic (c. 260 - 30 BCE) (by Simeon Netchev) A map illustrating the expansion of the Roman Republic from its origins as a loose confederacy of allies and those called Latins in Italy (after the Latin War of 340 - 338 BCE) through more than 230 years of alliances, wars, and annexations until the fall of Egypt and the emergence of Augustus Caesar as a Roman emperor .
The Tomb of Tutankhamun in Thebes (by Simeon Netchev) An infographic depicting the tomb layout and location of the Egyptian New Kingdom pharaoh Tutankhamun (c. 1345 - 1327 BCE). Tutankhamun died when he was nineteen and the cause of his death is still a mystery. His tomb was discovered relatively intact in 1922 by British archaeologist Howard Carter.